[1] Covenant of grace – God’s gracious, eternal purpose of redemption, conceived before the creation of the world, first announced in Genesis 3:15, progressively revealed in history, accomplished in the Person and work of Jesus Christ, and appropriated by faith in Him.

[2] Covenant of works – the covenant God established with Adam in the Garden of Eden before his fall into sin. It established man’s obligation to obey God with the penalty of death for disobedience (Gen 2:16, 17).

[3] legality – reliance on works for salvation rather than on God’s free grace in Christ.

[4] justification – “Justification is an act of God’s free grace, wherein he pardoneth all our sins, and accepteth us as righteous in his sight, only for the righteousness of Christ imputed to us, and received by faith alone”—Westminster Shorter Catechism, Q. 32.

[5] peculiar – special; one’s own, as in God’s own special people.

[6] mint, anise, and cummin or cuminmint: any of the aromatic Mentha garden plants used for seasoning; anise: dill, an evergreen aromatic plant used for spice and medicine; cumin: a cultivated plant in Palestine with seeds that have a bitter, warm taste and an aromatic flavor.

[7] spots and blurs – moral stains, disgraces; moral blemishes.

[8] moralists – those who live by or teach a natural system of ethics; merely moral people.

[9] quickened – made alive; the regenerating work of the Holy Spirit called the “new birth.”

[10] retribution – a justly deserved penalty.

[11] Cf. 1Co 15:10a; Acts 7:58; 8:1-3; 9:1-22; 22:1-21; 26:1-29.; Phi 3:1-15.

[12] From the hymn by Augustus Toplady (1740-1778), A Debtor to Mercy Alone, in the Gospel Magazine, 1771.

[13] Pharisee – a member of an ancient Jewish sect noted for strict obedience to Jewish traditions.

[14] Gamaliel – famous Jewish scholar who lived in the 1st Century A. D. and thought to be the grandson of the famous Rabbi Hillel; a Pharisee, a doctor of the law, and a member of the Sanhedrin, the high council of Jews in Jerusalem; mentioned in Acts 5:33-40.

[15] Some authorities of the Greek language believe that that refers to the entire phrase “For by grace are ye saved through faith,” which includes faith.

[16] disinterested – free of self-interest.

[17] province – function.

[18] disparaged – to treat something lower than it is.

[19] laxity – the condition of being not strict or careful enough.

[20] A. W. Pink, Profiting from the Word, available as a paperback from Chapel Library.

[21] inculcation – teaching or impressing upon the mind by frequent instruction or repetition.

[22] Alexander Carson (1766-1844) – Irish Baptist pastor; author of Baptism, Its Mode and Subjects and numerous other titles.

[23] sanctification – “Sanctification is the work of God’s free grace, whereby we are renewed in the whole man after the image of God, and are enabled more and more to die unto sin, and live unto righteousness”—Westminster Shorter Catechism, Q. 35.

[24] conducing – tending to bring about.

[25] servile subjection – slave-like, groveling submission.

[26] viz. – that is.

[27] promulgation – publishing; making known by open declaration.

[28] comeliness – pleasing appearance; gracefulness or beauty of form.

[29] filial – having or assuming the relationship of child or offspring to parent.

[30] spell – subject of discourse or discussion.

[31] not…want – unaware that something was missing.

[32] forward – eager.

[33] discover – reveal; show.

[34] lets – obstructs; stands in the way.

[35] stick at…labor and charge – hesitate because of hard work or burdens to carry.

[36] piety – reverence for God, love of His character, and obedience to His will.

[37] mean – inferior.

[38] fit or pang – sudden, irregular impulse or sudden, keen emotion.

[39] give over – give up.

[40] propensity – an tendency or feeling that drives somebody to make a particular choice.

[41] free principle within – the principle of life produced by the Holy Spirit in the new birth.

[42] artificer – a skilled craftsman or worker.

[43] carbuncle – a deep-red garnet; a red gemstone that is smoothly rounded and polished.

[44] posed – examined by questioning; interrogated.

[45] acted – influenced.

[46] fancy – delusive imagination.

[47] Libertinism – the practice of no moral restraint and the rejection of religious authority.

[48] onset and storm – attack and violent assault.

[49] Seneca, Lucius Annaeus (c. 4 BC-AD 65) also Seneca the Younger – Roman philosopher, statesman, and orator; Rome’s leading intellectual of his day.

[50] indented – entered into a formal agreement; covenanted.

[51] fancy – figment of the imagination.

[52] vouched – declared.

[53] controverted by gainsayers – argued against by those who disagree and deny.

[54] oyes – “hear ye,” a call for silence and attention when a proclamation is about to be made.

[55] watchword – the call of a sentinel on his rounds.

[56] legal spirits – those who believe in doing works to be right with God.

[57] Acts 17:10, 11.

[58] implicit faith – faith that one does not arrive at independently, but by resting on the authority of another without raising questions.

[59] cavils – trivial objections.

[60] to wit – namely; that is to say.

[61] solicitude – a feeling of excessive concern.

[62] improving…Christ – making better use of the strength Christ gives.

[63] savourly – with understanding; with appreciation.

[64] set the case – suppose.

[65] license – permit.

[66] want – lack.

[67] stuck – hesitated.

[68] hold the head – to make a very prominent profession of religion.

[69] wording professor – one who professes Christ, but speaks only empty words.

[70] spangling – sparkling; glistening.